2003 SARS Outbreak

2012 MERS Outbreak

2019-nCoV : 2019 novel Coronavirus (Now Known as SARS-CoV-2)

The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2.

Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.

Nat Microbiol. 2020 Apr;5(4):536-544. doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z. Epub 2020 Mar 2. Collaborators (17)

3CLpro : 3C-Like Protease Inhibitors

ACE-2 : Angiotensin Converting Enzyme -2

ARDS – Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ACE-2 based Peptides

Antibiotic Therapy



Antiviral Drugs

Basic Reproduction Number (R0)


CBC – Complete Blood Count

CDC – Centre for Disease Control and Prevention

cDNA – Complementary DNA

CDR – Complemetarity Determining Region

CEBM – Centre for Evidence Based Medicine

CFR – Case Fatality Rate

CFR is the ratio of the number of deaths divided by the number of confirmed (preferably by nucleic acid testing) cases of disease. 

CoV – Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses are enveloped, positive-sense, single stranded
RNA viruses, capable of rapid mutation and recombination. alpha and Beta coronaviruses have their gene source from bats and are mainly found in mammals such as bats, rodents, civets, and humans;

  • alpha Coronaoviruses
  • beta coronaviruses
  • gamma coronaviruses
  • delta cronaviruses

COVID-19 : Coronavirus disease 2019

CRISPR – Clustered Regularly Interspaced short Palindromic Repeats

CRP : C-Reactive Protein

CRRT – Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

CTD : C-Terminal Domain


Clinical Trials


  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • COPD
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Chronic Liver Diseases
  • Malignancy




Molecular and antibody point-of-care tests to support the screening, diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 CEBM Link

DNA Synthesis Inhibitors


EC – Effective Concentration (EC50 and EC90)

ECM0 – Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

EP – Exceedence Probability


ELISA – Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Envelope Protein (E Proteins)

Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge – Schoeman and Fielding Virology Journal (2019)


GGO – Ground Glass Opacity (Chest CT)

Gene Silencing


HFNC – High Flow Nasal Canula

HIPAA – Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (US)

HIV/AIDS : Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

HR1 and HR2 – Heptad Repeat – 1 and -2 respectively

Helical Symmetry

Hydroxychloroquine –

Anti Malaria drug that has been found to be effective in some cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection.. Donald Trump had asked Narendra Modi to supply it to US..

ICMR – Indian Council of Medical Research

ICTV – Interntional Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

IFR – Infection Fatality Rate

IFR is the ratio of deaths divided by the number of actual infections

IHME – Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

IHR – International Health Regulation

Icosahedral Symmetry


Influenza A Pandemic (2009)

LDH – Lactate Dehydrogenase

LMICs – Low and Middle Income Countries

LTRI – Lower Respiratory Tract Infection



MERS – Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

MOHFW – Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Membrane or M Proteins

Molecular Biology – How Viruses Work

How Viruses work – Molecular Biology



NCATS – National Centre for Advancing Translational Sciences

NCI – National Cancer Institute

NIAID – National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIBIB – National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

NIH – National Institute of Health

NIV – National Institute of Virology

NTD : N-Terminal Domain


A firm proving at Home blood collection kits

Neuraminidase Inhibitors

Nucleocapsid (N Proteins)

Nucleoside Analogues

Oxygen Therapy

PCR – Polymrase Chain Reaction

PHEIC – Public Health Emergency of International Concern

PPE – Personal protection Equipment

Pandemic :

A pandemic is defined as “an epidemic occurring over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries, and usually affecting a large number of people”



Preventive Measures

  • Social Distancing
  • Quarantine
  • Washing Hands frequently
  • Use of alcohol based Sanitizers
  • Covering face while sneezing and Coughing
  • Lockdown
  • Curfew
  • National Emergency

RBD – Receptor Binding Domain

RdRp – RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase

RSV – Respiratory Synctial Virus

RT-PCR : Reverse Transcriptase – Polymerase Chain Reaction

Real-Time RT-PCR



Reverse Transcriptase


RNA Interference

RNA Recombination

RNA Viruses (see also Retroviruses)

SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome


virus is a novel betacoronavirus belonging to the lineage B or subgenus sarbecovirus, which also includes the human SARS coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract.

SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Antigen Reagents


Respiratory Swabs



Social Distancing and Self-Isolation

Spark Risk

Spread Risk

Structural Proteins

Structural proteins are the “building blocks” used in construction of the protective protein capsule or “capsid” that, in combination, constitute viral particles.The coronaviral genome encodes four major structural proteins: the spike (S) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, membrane (M) protein, and the envelope (E) protein, all of which are required to produce a structurally complete viral particle

Spike Proteins (S Proteins)

Swine Flu Virus


  • Fever
  • Dry Cough
  • Myalgia/fatigue
  • Difficulty in Breathing
  • Nasal Congestion
  • Headache
  • Rhinorrohea
  • Sneezing
  • Sore Throat
  • pleuritic chest pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nausea/Vomitting


  • Radiology : Chest Radiographs and Computed Tomography Scans
  • Hematology
  • Microbiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Real-Time RT-PCR Assay – QuantiNova SYBR Green RT-PCR Kit (Qiagen)
  • Respiratory and diarrhoeal pathogen detection
  • Respiratoy Synctial Virus Assay – GeneExpert Systems
  • Conventional RT-PCR and Sequencing – SuperScript IV Reverse Transcriptase
  • Genomic Sequencing – ABI Genetic Anayser (Applied Biosystems)


Inactivated vaccine, recombinant subunits vaccine, nucleic acid-based vaccine, adenoviral vector vaccine, recombinant influenza viral vector vaccine, etc

Ref. Pang J. etal Potential Rapid Diagnostics, Vaccines and therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): A Systematic Review. J Clin Med 9


The Surprisingly Long History of the Ventilator, the Machine You Never Want to Need – Time Magazine

Viral Pneumonia

Viral Replication





  • Coronaviruses
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Beta-Coronaviruses
  • SS-RNA Viruses
  • Phylogenetic tree

Transmission of Virus

  • Animal to Human
  • Human to Human

URTI -Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

WHO – World Health Organization

Whole Genome Sequencing

  • Oxford Nanopore MinION device (Oxford Nanopore Technologies, Oxford, UK)

Wuhan (Hubei, China)

Zika Virus


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